Review of Unemployment

How many forms are there of unemployment?

An economic condition marked by the fact that individuals actively seeking jobs remain unemployed. Unemployment is expressed as a percentage of the total available work force. The level of unemployment varies with economic conditions and other circumstances.

Henry Pratt Fairchild (1880-1956) defined unemployment as “Unemployment is forced and involuntary separation from remunerative work on thne part of the normal working force during normal working time, at normal wages and uder normal conditions.”

Karl Pribram (1877-1973) defined as “Unemployment is a condition of the labour market in which the supply of labour is greater than the number of available openings.”

According to Alfred Hook (1850-1905), unemployment is of five kinds. These are as follows:

  1. Cyclical unemployment
  2. Sudden unemployment
  3. Unemployment arising from failure in industry or business
  4. Unemployment resulting from deterioration in industries
  5. Unemployment arising from seasonal business

Bob Chapman’s opinion: According to Chapman there are six forms of unemployment.

  1. Subjective Unemployment:  This is caused by physical or mental shortcoming of the individual.
  2. Objective Unemployment:  This is caused by factors beyond the control of the individual and is related to objective circumstances. They can have four forms.
  3. Seasonal Unemployment:  This is the unemployment caused by the shutting down of seasonal industries.
  4. Cyclical unemployment:  This is due to the cyclical economic inflation and depression.
  5. Structural Unemployment:  This is due to the defects in the economic structure, for example while thousands of people are unemployed in Kanpur there may be a heavy demand for labour in New Delhi. In this situation the unemployment is not due to the excess of supply over demand, but rather due to the defect of the economic structure.
  6. Normal Unemployment:  This form of unemployment prevails in almost all countries. In the complex economic organization it is difficult to provide full time employment to everybody.

Other forms of Unemployment:  Besides the above mentioned forms of the unemployment the following three forms are also accepted.

  1. Agricultural Unemployment.
  2. Technological Unemployment.
  3. Educational Unemployment.

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